I. Preamble/Stage Setting
1. We, the heads of State and Government, having met at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 20-22 June 2012, resolve to work together for a prosperous, secure and sustainable future for our people and our planet.
2. We reaffirm our determination to free humanity from hunger and want through the eradication of all forms of poverty and strive for societies which are just, equitable and inclusive, for economic stability and growth that benefits all.
3. We are committed to making every effort to accelerate progress in achieving the internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals by 2015, thus improving the lives of the poorest people.
4. We are also committed to enhancing cooperation and addressing the ongoing and emerging issues in ways which will enhance opportunities for all, be centred on human development while preserving and protecting the life support system of our common home, our shared planet.
5. We urge bold and decisive action on the objective and themes for the conference. We renew our commitment to sustainable development and express our determination to pursue the green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication. We further affirm our resolve to strengthen the institutional framework for sustainable development. Taken together our actions should fill the implementation gaps and achieve greater integration among the three pillars of sustainable development – the economic, the social and the environmental.
II. Renewing Political Commitment
A. Reaffirming Rio principles and past action plans
6. We reaffirm that we continue to be guided by the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and with full respect for international law and its principles.
7. We reaffirm our commitment to advance progress in implementation of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, Agenda 21, the Programme for the Further Implementation of Agenda 21, the Johannesburg Declaration on Sustainable Development and the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, the Barbados Programme of Action and the Mauritius Strategy for Implementation. The Rio Principles shall continue to guide the international community and serve as the basis for cooperation, coherence and implementation of agreed commitments.
8. We also reaffirm our commitment to the Monterrey Consensus of the International Conference on Financing for Development, the Doha Declaration on Financing for Development: the Political Declaration on Africa’s development needs, and the Istanbul Programme of Action for Least Developed Countries.
9. We recognize the need to reinforce sustainable development globally through our collective and national efforts, in accordance with the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and the principle of the sovereign right of states over their natural resources.
B. Assessing the progress to date and the remaining gaps in the implementation of the outcomes of the major summits on sustainable development and addressing new and emerging challenges (Integration, Implementation, Coherence)
10. We recognize that the twenty years since the Earth Summit in 1992 have seen progress and change. There are deeply inspiring examples of progress, including in poverty eradication, in pockets of economic dynamism and in connectivity spurred by new information technologies which have empowered people.
11. We acknowledge, however, that there have also been setbacks because of multiple interrelated crises – financial, economic and volatile energy and food prices. Food insecurity, climate change and biodiversity loss have adversely affected development gains. New scientific evidence points to the gravity of the threats we face. New and emerging challenges include the further intensification of earlier problems calling for more urgent responses. We are deeply concerned that around 1.4 billion people still live in extreme poverty and one sixth of the world’s population is undernourished, pandemics and epidemics are omnipresent threats. Unsustainable development has increased the stress on the earth's limited natural resources and on the carrying capacity of ecosystems. Our planet supports seven billion people expected to reach nine billion by 2050.
12. We note that national commitment to sustainable development has deepened. Many Governments now incorporate environmental and social issues into their economic policies, and have strengthened their commitment to sustainable development and the implementation of Agenda 21 and related agreements through national policies and plans, national legislation and institutions, and the ratification and implementation of international environmental agreements.
13. We nevertheless observe that, despite efforts by Governments and non-State actors in all countries, sustainable development remains a distant goal and there remain major barriers and systemic gaps in the implementation of internationally agreed commitments.
14. We resolve to redouble our efforts to eradicate poverty and hunger and to ensure that human activities respect the earth’s ecosystems and life-support systems. We need to mainstream sustainable development in all aspects of the way we live. We acknowledge the particular responsibility to nurture sustainable development and sustainable consumption and production patterns.
15. We recognize the special challenges facing least developed countries, landlocked developing countries, Small Island developing States, middle-income countries and African countries.
16. We acknowledge the diversity of the world and recognize that all cultures and civilizations contribute to the enrichment of humankind and the protection of the Earth’s life support system. We emphasize the importance of culture for sustainable development. We call for a holistic approach to sustainable development which will guide humanity to live in harmony with nature.
C. Engaging major groups
17. We underscore that a fundamental prerequisite for the achievement of sustainable development is broad public participation in decision-making. Sustainable development requires major groups – women, children and youth, indigenous peoples, non-governmental organisations, local authorities, workers and trade unions, business and industry, the scientific and technological community, and farmers – to play a meaningful role at all levels. It is important to enable all members of civil society to be actively engaged in sustainable development by incorporating their specific knowledge and practical know-how into national and local policy making. In this regard, we also acknowledge the role of national parliaments in furthering sustainable development.
18. We recognize that improved participation of civil society depends upon strengthening the right to access information and building civil society capacity to exercise this right. Technology is making it easier for Governments to share information with the public and for the public to hold decision makers accountable. In this regard, it is essential to work towards universal access to information and communications technologies.
19. We acknowledge the important role of the private sector in moving towards sustainable development. We strongly encourage business and industry to show leadership in advancing a green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication.
20. We also acknowledge the essential role of local governments and the need to fully integrate them into all levels of decision making on sustainable development.
21. We recognize the importance of the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples in the global, regional and national implementation of sustainable development strategies. We also recognize the need to reflect the views of children and youth as the issues we are addressing will have a deep impact on the youth of today and the generations that follow.
D. Framework for action
22. We commit to improving governance and capacity at all levels – global, regional, national and local – to promote integrated decision making, to fill the implementation gap and promote coherence across institutions.
23. We commit ourselves to reinvigorating the global partnership for sustainable development. We recognize that States must work together cooperatively and join with all stakeholders to address the common sustainable development challenges we face.
24. We call for a global policy framework requiring all listed and large private companies to consider sustainability issues and to integrate sustainability information within the reporting cycle.
III. Green Economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication
A. Framing the context of the green economy, challenges and opportunities
25. We are convinced that a green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication should contribute to meeting key goals – in particular the priorities of poverty eradication, food security, sound water management, universal access to modern energy services, sustainable cities, management of oceans and improving resilience and disaster preparedness, as well as public health, human resource development and sustained, inclusive and equitable growth that generates employment, including for youth. It should be based on the Rio principles, in particular the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities, and should be people-centred and inclusive, providing opportunities and benefits for all citizens and all countries.
26. We view the green economy as a means to achieve sustainable development, which must remain our overarching goal. We acknowledge that a green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication should protect and enhance the natural resource base, increase resource efficiency, promote sustainable consumption and production patterns, and move the world toward low-carbon development.
27. We underscore that green economy is not intended as a rigid set of rules but rather as a decision-making framework to foster integrated consideration of the three pillars of sustainable development in all relevant domains of public and private decision-making.
28. We recognize that each country, respecting specific realities of economic, social and environmental development as well as particular conditions and priorities, will make the appropriate choices.
29. We are convinced that green economy policies and measures can offer win-win opportunities to improve the integration of economic development with environmental sustainability to all countries, regardless of the structure of their economy and their level of development.
30. We acknowledge, however, that developing countries are facing great challenges in eradicating poverty and sustaining growth, and a transition to a green economy will require structural adjustments which may involve additional costs to their economies. In this regard, the support of the international community is necessary.
31. We note that the transformation to a green economy should be an opportunity to all countries and a threat to none. We therefore resolve that international efforts to help countries build a green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication must not:
a) create new trade barriers;
b) impose new conditionalities on aid and finance;
c) widen technology gaps or exacerbate technological dependence of developing countries on developed countries;
d) restrict the policy space for countries to pursue their own paths to sustainable development.
B. Toolkits and experience sharing
32. We acknowledge that countries are still in the early stages of building green economies and can learn from one another. We note the positive experiences in developing a green economy in some countries, including developing countries. We recognize that a mix of policies and measures tailored to each country’s needs and preferences will be needed. Policy options include, inter alia, regulatory, economic and fiscal instruments, investment in green infrastructure, financial incentives, subsidy reform, sustainable public procurement, information disclosure, and voluntary partnerships.
33. We support the creation of an international knowledge-sharing platform to facilitate countries’ green economy policy design and implementation, including:
a) a menu of policy options;
b) a toolbox of good practices in applying green economy policies at regional, national and local levels;
c) a set of indicators to measure progress;
d) a directory of technical services, technology and financing that could assist developing countries.
34. We request the UN Secretary-General, in consultation with international organizations, relevant entities of the UN system and others, to establish such a platform.
35. We urge member States to make national presentations on their experiences in the appropriate institutional framework as described in Section IV below.
36. We also urge all major groups, particularly business and industry, to share their experiences in this regard.
C. Framework for action
37. We recognize the value of having a set of differentiated strategies, tailored to the needs of different countries and different sectors.
38. We encourage all States to develop their own green economy strategies through a transparent process of multi-stakeholder consultation.
39. We encourage the United Nations, in cooperation with other relevant international organizations, to support developing countries at their request in developing green economy strategies.
40. We strongly encourage business and industry – organized by industrial sectors, cooperating across countries and in consultation with governments, workers and trade unions and other stakeholders – to develop green economy roadmaps for their respective sectors, with concrete goals and benchmarks of progress, including for net creation of jobs.
41. We acknowledge and encourage voluntary national commitments and actions by State actors as well as stakeholders to achieve a green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication, including through the shaping of innovative partnerships.
42. We realize that to make significant progress towards building green economies will require new investments, new skills formation, technology development, transfer and access, and capacity building in all countries. We acknowledge the particular need to provide support to developing countries in this regard and agree:
a) To provide new, additional and scaled up sources of financing to developing countries;
b) To launch an international process to promote the role of innovative instruments of finance for building green economies;
c) To gradually eliminate subsidies that have considerable negative effects on the environment and are incompatible with sustainable development, complemented with measures to protect poor and vulnerable groups;
d) To facilitate international collaborative research on green technologies involving developing countries, ensuring the technologies so developed remain in the public domain and are accessible to developing countries at affordable prices;
e) To encourage creation of Centres of Excellence as nodal points for green technology R&D;
f) To support developing countries’ scientists and engineers and scientific and engineering institutions to foster their efforts to develop green local technologies and use traditional knowledge;
g) To establish a capacity development scheme to provide country-specific advice and, where appropriate, region and sector-specific advice to all interested countries and to assist them in accessing available funds.
43. We recognize the importance of measuring global progress. In this regard, we will be guided by a roadmap that contains the following indicative goals and timeline:
a) 2012~2015: establishment of indicators and measures to evaluate implementation; establishment of mechanisms for the transfer of technology, sharing of know-how, and enhancement of capacities;
b) 2015~2030: implementation and periodic assessment of progress;
c) 2030: comprehensive assessment of progress.
We request the Secretary-General, in close cooperation with the UN system, to provide a report for the General Assembly at its 67th session, detailing further steps in this regard.
IV. Institutional framework for sustainable development
A. Strengthening/reforming/integrating the three pillars
44. We recognize that strong governance at local, national, regional and global levels is critical for advancing sustainable development. The strengthening and reform of the institutional framework should, among other things:
a) Integrate the three pillars of sustainable development and promote the implementation of Agenda 21 and related outcomes, consistent with the principles of universality, democracy, transparency, cost-effectiveness and accountability, keeping in mind the Rio Principles, in particular common but differentiated responsibilities.
b) Provide cohesive, government-driven policy guidance on sustainable development and identify specific actions in order to fulfil the sustainable development agenda through the promotion of integrated decision making at all levels.
c) Monitor progress in the implementation of Agenda 21 and relevant outcomes and agreements, at local, national, regional and global levels.
d) Reinforce coherence among the agencies, funds and programmes of the United Nations system, including the International Financial and Trade Institutions.
B. GA, ECOSOC, CSD, SDC proposal
45. We reaffirm the central role of the General Assembly as the highest policy-making body, and call for it to further integrate sustainable development as a key element of the overarching framework for United Nations activities.
Economic and Social Council
46. We reaffirm that the Economic and Social Council is a central mechanism for the coordination of the United Nations system and its specialized agencies and supervision of its subsidiary bodies, in particular its functional commissions.
47. We also reaffirm that ECOSOC is a central forum for intergovernmental deliberations on economic and social issues, and provides guidance and coordination to the UN system’s operational activities for development in the field.
48. We agree to promote the role of ECOSOC in the integration of the three pillars of sustainable development including by making better use of the coordination segment of ECOSOC for monitoring implementation of agreements on sustainable development and, similarly, making use of the ECOSOC operational activities and humanitarian segments to promote mainstreaming of sustainable development into programmes of UN agencies and programmes.
Commission on Sustainable Development
49. We reaffirm the role of the Commission on Sustainable Development as the high level commission on sustainable development in the United Nations system. We agree to consider options for improving the working methods, the agenda and programme of work of the Commission to better facilitate, promote, and coordinate sustainable development implementation, including measures to ensure more focused, balanced and responsive engagement with a more limited set of issues, and enhanced implementation of its decisions. We also agree to consider means to enhance the review function of the Commission, including through a voluntary review process.
Sustainable Development Council
49 alt. We resolve to transform the CSD into a Sustainable Development Council that will serve as the authoritative, high-level body for consideration of matters relating to the integration of the three dimensions of sustainable development
49 alt. bis The work of the Council should be based on fundamental documents on sustainable development such as Agenda 21, the Rio principles and related outcomes. The Council should, inter alia, fully carry out the functions and mandates of the Commission for Sustainable Development. It would be guided by the need to promote integration of the three pillars of sustainable development, promote effective implementation at all levels and promote effective institutional coherence. It should help in enhancing the involvement of all stakeholders, particularly major groups, in the follow-up of Rio+20.
49 alt ter. We request the President of the General Assembly to conduct open, transparent and inclusive negotiations, with the aim of establishing the mandate, modalities, functions, size, composition, membership, working methods and procedures of the Council and report on the outcome before the end of the 67th session of the General Assembly.
C. UNEP, specialized agency on environment proposal, IFIs, United Nations operational activities at country level
50. We reaffirm the need to strengthen international environmental governance within the context of the institutional framework for sustainable development, in order to promote a balanced integration of the economic, social and environmental pillars of sustainable development, and to this end:
51. We agree to strengthen the capacity of UNEP to fulfil its mandate by establishing universal membership in its Governing Council and call for significantly increasing its financial base to deepen policy coordination and enhance means of implementation.
51 alt. We resolve to establish a UN specialized agency for the environment with universal membership of its Governing Council, based on UNEP, with a revised and strengthened mandate, supported by stable, adequate and predictable financial contributions and operating on an equal footing with other UN specialized agencies. This agency, based in Nairobi, would cooperate closely with other specialized agencies.
52. We stress the need for a regular review of the state of the planet and the Earth’s carrying capacity and request the Secretary-General to coordinate the preparation of such a review in consultation with relevant international organizations and the UN system.
53. We call for the scientific basis for decision making to be strengthened across the UN system and recognise that the interface between science and policy-making should be enhanced.
54. We recognize that sustainable development must be given due consideration by the International Financial Institutions, especially the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, the regional development banks, UNCTAD and the World Trade Organization in regulating global trade. In that regard, we request the international financial institutions to review their programmatic strategies to ensure the provision of better support to developing countries for the implementation of sustainable development.
55. We recognize that coordination and cooperation among the MEAs are needed in order to, inter alia, address policy fragmentation and avoid overlap and duplication. We welcome the work already undertaken to enhance synergies among the three conventions in the chemicals and waste cluster. We call for further measures to enhance coordination and cooperation among MEAs in other clusters.
56. We emphasise the need to strengthen operational activities for sustainable development, especially the delivery of the UN system in the field.
57. We agree to further consider the establishment of an Ombudsperson, or High Commissioner for Future Generations, to promote sustainable development.
58. We agree to take steps to give further effect to Rio Principle 10 at the global, regional and national level, as appropriate.
D. Regional, national, local
59. We reaffirm that overarching sustainable development strategies incorporated in national development plans are key instruments for the implementation of sustainable development commitments at regional, national and sub-national levels.
60. We call for the strengthening of existing regional and sub-regional mechanisms, including the regional commissions, in promoting sustainable development through capacity building, exchange of information and experiences and providing expertise.
61. We underline the need for more coherent and integrated planning and decision-making at the national level. We therefore call on countries to establish and strengthen, as appropriate, national sustainable development councils to enable them to coordinate, consolidate and ensure the mainstreaming of cross-cutting issues in the highest decision-making bodies, with the integration and full participation of all stakeholders.
62. We recognise the need to integrate sustainable urban development policy as a key component of a national sustainable development policy and, in this regard, to empower local authorities to work more closely with national governments. We recognize that partnerships among cities have emerged as a leading force for action on sustainable development. We commit to support international cooperation among local authorities, including through assistance from international organizations.
V. Framework for action and follow-up
A. Priority/key/thematic/cross-sectoral issues and areas
63. We recognize that progress in implementation requires attention to a number of sectoral and cross-sectoral priority areas as well as to the linkage among different sectors. We also recognize that assessing progress in these areas can benefit from defining aspirational goals, targets and indicators, as appropriate. We therefore commit to the following actions:
64. We reaffirm the right to food and call upon all States to prioritize sustainable intensification of food production through increased investment in local food production, improved access to local and global agri-food markets, and reduced waste throughout the supply chain, with special attention to women, smallholders, youth, and indigenous farmers. We are committed to ensuring proper nutrition for our people.
65. We call for more transparent and open trading systems and, where appropriate, practices that contribute to the stability of food prices and domestic markets; ensure access to land, water and other resources; and support social protection programmes.
66. We further support initiatives at all levels that improve access to information, enhance interactions among farmers and experts through education and extension services, and increase the use of appropriate technologies for sustainable agriculture.
67. We underline the importance of the right to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation as a human right that is essential for the full enjoyment of life and all human rights. Furthermore, we highlight the critical importance of water resources for sustainable development, including poverty and hunger eradication, public health, food security, hydropower, agriculture and rural development.
68. We recognize the necessity of setting goals for wastewater management, including reducing water pollution from households, industrial and agricultural sources and promoting water efficiency, wastewater treatment and the use of wastewater as a resource, particularly in expanding urban areas.
69. We renew our commitment made in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (JPOI) regarding the development and implementation of integrated water resources management and water efficiency plans. We reaffirm our commitment to the 2005-2015 International Decade for Action “Water for Life”. We encourage cooperation initiatives for water resources management in particular through capacity development, exchange of experiences, best practices and lessons learned, as well as sharing appropriate environmentally sound technologies and know-how.
70. We propose to build on the Sustainable Energy for All initiative launched by the Secretary-General, with the goals of providing universal access to a basic minimum level of modern energy services for both consumption and production uses by 2030; improving energy efficiency at all levels with a view to doubling the rate of improvement by 2030; and doubling the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix by 2030 through promoting the development and use of renewable energy sources and technologies in all countries. We call for provision of adequate financial resources, of sufficient quality and delivered in a timely manner, to developing countries for providing efficient and wider use of energy sources.
71. We agree that each country should work for low-carbon development. We encourage more widespread use of energy planning tools to provide a robust framework for donors and partners to coordinate their development cooperation efforts.
72. We commit to promote an integrated and holistic approach to planning and building sustainable cities through support to local authorities, efficient transportation and communication networks, greener buildings and an efficient human settlements and service delivery system, improved air and water quality, reduced waste, improved disaster preparedness and response and increased climate resilience.
Green jobs-social inclusion
73. We recognize that the development of human capacity is essential to achieving broad-based economic growth, building strong, sustainable communities, promoting social well-being, and improving the environment. Workers must have the skills and protections necessary to participate in and benefit from the transition to a green economy, which has great potential to create decent jobs, particularly for the youth, and eradicate poverty.
74. We also recognize that significant job creation opportunities can be availed through investments in public works for restoration and enhancement of natural capital, sustainable land and water management practices, family farming, ecological farming, organic production systems, sustainable forest management, rational use of biodiversity for economic purposes, and new markets linked to renewable and unconventional energy sources. We encourage business and industry to contribute to green job creation throughout their global supply chains, including through support to small and medium enterprises.
75. We recognise and acknowledge that social well being and growth are also built on robust and high quality infrastructure that creates jobs and wealth, adds long term value and allows for broad inclusion. In this regard, we commit to enhanced infrastructure investment which promotes sustainable development.
76. Understanding that building green economies will depend critically on creating green jobs, we agree to take the following measures:
a) improve knowledge of green jobs trends and developments, and integrate relevant data into national economic statistics;
b) address potential skills shortages through skills mapping and promoting of green jobs training programs;
c) put in place an enabling environment for robust creation of decent jobs by private enterprises investing in the green economy, including by small and medium enterprises.
77. We stress the need to provide social protection to all members of society, including those who are not employed in the formal economy. In this regard, we strongly encourage national and local initiatives aimed at providing a social protection floor for all citizens.
Oceans and Seas, SIDS
78. We recognize that oceans are critical to sustaining Earth’s life support systems. Careless exploitation of the oceans and their resources puts at risk the ability of oceans to continue to provide food, other economic benefits and environmental services to humankind. We stress the importance of the conservation, sustainable management and equitable sharing of marine and ocean resources. We also recognize the significant economic, social and environmental contribution of coral reefs to island and coastal States, and support cooperation based on the Coral Triangle Initiative (CTI), and the International Coral Reef Initiative (ICRI).
79. We endorse the Regular Process for the Global Marine Assessment as a credible, robust process, and support the completion of its first global integrated assessment of the state of the marine environment by 2014. We call for consideration of assessment findings in formulation of national, regional and global oceans policy.
80. We note the establishment by the UN General Assembly of an Ad Hoc Open-ended Informal Working Group to study issues relating to the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity beyond areas of national jurisdiction, and we agree to initiate, as soon as possible, the negotiation of an implementing agreement to UNCLOS that would address the conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction.
81. We call on countries to advance implementation of the Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities, including further capacity-building and mobilization of resources for investment in treatment of human wastes and waste water and to develop a global action plan to combat marine litter and pollution.
82. We also propose to implement an international observing network for ocean acidification and to work collectively to prevent further ocean acidification.
83. We note that despite agreement to restore global fish stocks to sustainable levels by 2015, many stocks continue to be depleted unsustainably. We call upon States to re-commit to maintaining or restoring depleted fish stocks to sustainable levels and to further commit to implementing science-based management plans to rebuild stocks by 2015.
84. We urge countries to combat illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing by adopting and implementing effective tools, in accordance with international law. We note the agreement on port state measures to prevent, deter and eliminate illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing approved by FAO in 2009 and urge States that have not yet acceded to the agreement to do so.
85. We reaffirm that Small Island Developing States (SIDS) remain a special case for sustainable development in view of their unique and particular vulnerabilities. The vulnerability of SIDS has worsened over the last two decades, primarily because of higher exposure to external shocks, including increasing adverse impacts of climate change and more frequent and intense natural disasters as well as the fuel, food, and financial crises, combined with inadequate international support.
86. We call for increased efforts to assist SIDS in implementing the BPOA and MSI and achieving sustainable development, including improvement and strengthening of the relevant entities within the United Nations system that support SIDS' sustainable development. We also call for the convening of the third international conference for the sustainable development of Small Island Developing States in 2014.
87. We reiterate the call for disaster risk reduction to continue to be addressed in the context of sustainable development and placed within the post-2015 development agenda. We call for increased coordination among national, regional and international levels for a robust response to environmental emergencies and improved forecasting and early warning systems, as well as closer coordination between emergency response, early recovery and development efforts, including adoption of a post “Hyogo Framework” and its integration into development policy.
88. We reaffirm that climate change is one of the greatest challenges of our time, and express our deep concern that developing countries are particularly vulnerable to and are experiencing increased negative impacts from climate change, which is severely undermining food security and efforts to eradicate poverty, and also threatens the territorial integrity, viability and the very existence of small island developing states. We welcome the outcome of COP17 at Durban and look forward to the urgent implementation of all the agreements reached.
89. We encourage international initiatives and partnerships to address the interrelationship among water, energy, food and climate change in order to achieve synergies as well as to minimize conflicts among policy objectives, being particularly sensitive to impacts on vulnerable populations.
Forests and biodiversity
90. We support policy frameworks and market instruments that effectively slow, halt and reverse deforestation and forest degradation and promote the sustainable use and management of forests, as well as their conservation and restoration. We call for the urgent implementation of the “Non-Legally Binding Instrument on all Types of Forests (NLBI)”.
91. We welcome the Nagoya Protocol adopted at the tenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biodiversity. We support mainstreaming of biodiversity and ecosystem services in policies and decision-making processes at international, regional and national levels, and encourage investments in natural capital through appropriate incentives and policies, which support a sustainable and equitable use of biological diversity and ecosystems.
Land degradation and desertification
92. We recognize the economic and social significance of land, particularly its contribution to growth, food security, and poverty eradication, and note that the intensity of desertification of most of Africa’s arable land is a serious challenge to sustainable development in the region. We call for enhanced support by the international community to the implementation of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD).
93. We agree to support partnerships and initiatives for the safeguarding of soil resources such as the Global Soil Partnership (GSP). We also encourage scientific studies and initiatives aimed at raising wider awareness of the economic benefits of sustainable land management policies that achieve healthy and productive land and soil.
94. We recognize that mountains are highly vulnerable to global changes such as climate change, and are often home to communities including of indigenous peoples, who have developed sustainable uses of their resources yet are often marginalized, sometimes with high poverty rates, exposure to natural risks and food insecurity. We recognize the benefits derived from mountains and their associated ecosystems. We also recognize the need to explore global, regional, national, and local mechanisms to compensate and reward mountain communities for the services they provide through ecosystem protection.
Chemicals and waste
95. We call for strengthening the Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management (SAICM), to step up efforts towards a more robust, coherent, effective and efficient international regime for chemicals throughout their lifecycle. Sustainable and adequate long-term funding will be important to assist developing countries with sound chemical and waste management through an integrated approach.
96. We commend the increased coordination and cooperation among the Basel Convention, the Rotterdam Convention and the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, and call for public-private partnerships aiming to enhance capacity and technology for environmentally sound waste management. We also note with concern the emerging challenges of electronic waste and plastics in the marine environment, which should be addressed inter alia through appropriate programmes and environmentally sound technologies for material and energy recovery.
Sustainable Consumption and Production
97. We agree to establish a 10-Year Framework of Programmes on sustainable consumption and production (SCP) as part of a global pact on sustainable consumption and production, based on the text elaborated in the negotiations in the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development at its nineteenth session.
98. We recognize that access by all people to quality education is an essential condition for sustainable development and social inclusion. We commit to strengthening the contribution of our education systems to the pursuit of sustainable development, including through enhanced teacher training and curricula development.
99. We call upon universities to become models of best practice and transformation by setting an example of sustainability of facilities on their campuses and teaching sustainable development as a module across all disciplines. In this way sustainable practices will become embedded in learning and action.
100. We encourage international education exchange activities on education for sustainable development, including the creation of fellowships and scholarships for international study in disciplines and inter-disciplinary fields pertinent to the promotion of sustainable development.
101. We agree to promote education for sustainable development beyond the end of the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development in 2014, to educate a new generation of students in the values, key disciplines and holistic, cross-disciplinary approaches essential to promoting sustainable development.
102. We recognize that sustainable development is linked to and depends on women’s economic contributions, both formal and informal. We note with concern that persistent social and economic inequities continue to affect women and children, who make up the majority of those living in poverty.
103. We call for removing barriers that have prevented women from being full participants in the economy and unlocking their potential as drivers of sustainable development, and agree to prioritize measures to promote gender equality in all spheres of our societies, including education, employment, ownership of resources, access to justice, political representation, institutional decision-making, care giving and household and community management.
104. We support the work of UN Women in achieving gender equality and the empowerment of women in all aspects of life and bringing greater attention to the linkages between gender equality and the promotion of sustainable development.
B. Accelerating and measuring progress
105. We recognize that goals, targets and milestones are essential for measuring and accelerating progress towards sustainable development and agree to launch an inclusive process to devise by 2015:
a) a set of global Sustainable Development Goals that reflect an integrated and balanced treatment of the three dimensions of sustainable development, are consistent with the principles of Agenda 21, and are universal and applicable to all countries but allowing for differentiated approaches among countries;
b) a mechanism for periodic follow-up and reporting on progress made toward their achievement.
106. We invite all stakeholders to join this process and request the UN Secretary-General to coordinate this process.
107. We propose that the Sustainable Development Goals could include sustainable consumption and production patterns as well as priority areas such as oceans; food security and sustainable agriculture; sustainable energy for all; water access and efficiency; sustainable cities; green jobs, decent work and social inclusion; and disaster risk reduction and resilience.
108. We consider that the Sustainable Development Goals should complement and strengthen the MDGs in the development agenda for the post-2015 period, with a view to establishing a set of goals in 2015 which are part of the post-2015 UN Development Agenda.
109. We also propose that progress towards these Goals should be measured by appropriate indicators and evaluated by specific targets to be achieved possibly by 2030, and request the Secretary-General for proposals in this regard.
110. We resolve to strengthen the capacity of all countries to collect and analyze data and information needed to support the monitoring of progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals. We request the Secretary-General, with the support of interested donors, the UN system, international organizations and other entities, to promote a global partnership in this regard.
111. We also recognize the limitations of GDP as a measure of well-being. We agree to further develop and strengthen indicators complementing GDP that integrate economic, social and environmental dimensions in a balanced manner. We request the Secretary-General to establish a process in consultation with the UN system and other relevant organizations.
C. Means of implementation
112. We call for the fulfilment of all official development assistance commitments, including the commitments by many developed countries to achieve the target of 0.7 per cent of gross national product for official development assistance to developing countries by 2015, as well as a target of 0.15 to 0.20 per cent of gross national product for official development assistance to least developed countries. To reach their agreed timetables, donor countries should take all necessary and appropriate measures to raise the rate of aid disbursements to meet their existing commitments. We urge those developed countries that have not yet done so to make additional concrete efforts towards the target of 0.7 per cent of gross national product for official development assistance to developing countries, including the specific target of 0.15 to 0.20 per cent of gross national product for official development assistance to least developed countries in line with the Istanbul Programme of Action for the Least Developed Countries for the decade 2011-2020 in accordance with their commitments.
113. We call for the prioritization of sustainable development in the allocation of resources in line with the priorities and needs of developing countries, and for substantial increases in the provision of financing to developing countries for sustainable development.
114. We call for increased aid effectiveness, taking into account the Paris Declaration, the Accra Action Agenda and the Busan Partnership for Effective Development Cooperation in ensuring that aid is effective, accountable and responsive to the needs and priorities of developing countries. There is a need for greater coherence at both the international and national levels, including effective oversight of resources to ensure that developing countries have steady and predictable access to adequate financing, including by the private sector, to promote sustainable development.
115. We welcome the ongoing efforts to strengthen and support South-South cooperation and triangular cooperation. We stress that South-South cooperation is not a substitute for, but rather a complement to, North-South cooperation. We also stress that triangular cooperation should be further utilized as an effective modality for development cooperation.
116. We reaffirm the key role of the private sector in promoting sustainable development including through multi-stakeholder partnerships. Public policy should create a stable investment climate and regulatory framework conducive to long-term investment and socially and environmentally responsible behaviour by business and industry.
117. We call for the Global Environment Facility to be strengthened, with regularity in funding flows and reform of governance processes towards more transparent and democratic systems. We urge simplification of procedures and assistance to the least developed countries and SIDS in accessing resources from the GEF.
Science and Technology
118. We reaffirm the commitments related to science and technology contained in the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, Agenda 21 and in the outcomes of other major United Nations Summits and Conferences.
119. We recognize the importance of strengthening the scientific, technological and innovation capacities of countries to promote sustainable development. In this regard, we stress the need for effective mechanisms, enhanced means, appropriate enabling environments, and the removal of obstacles to the scaling up of the development and transfer of technology to developing countries.
120. We agree to strengthen international cooperation conducive to investment and technology transfer, development and diffusion.
121. We reaffirm the need for providing support to existing regional and sub-regional structures and mechanisms in developing countries and encouraging their creation, where needed, with the aim of facilitating cooperation and the exchange of information, including capacity building, exchange of experiences and expertise to advance the implementation of the decisions at regional and sub regional levels.
122. We call for the immediate implementation of the Bali Strategic Plan for Technology Support and Capacity Building.
123. We urge the participation and representation of scientists from developing countries in processes related to global environmental and sustainable development assessment to strengthen scientific capacities in these countries.
124. We urge the members of the WTO to redouble efforts to achieve a universal, rules-based, open, non-discriminatory and equitable multilateral trading system and for an early balanced, ambitious and development-oriented outcome of the Doha Development Round of multilateral trade negotiations. We call for the full realization of the commitments made in the 2005 Hong-Kong Ministerial Declaration of the WTO in favour of the least developed countries.
125. We reaffirm that there is an urgent need for the international economic and financial institutions to work together to ensure that developing countries, particularly the least developed countries, are able to benefit from the advantages of the multilateral trade system and their integration into global markets.
126. We support the eventual phase out of market distorting and environmentally harmful subsidies that impede the transition to sustainable development, including those on fossil fuels, agriculture and fisheries, with safeguards to protect vulnerable groups.
127. We support the trade capacity building and facilitation activities of international and regional organizations which would assist developing countries, particularly the least developed countries, in identifying and seizing new export opportunities, including those created by the transition towards a green economy.
Registry/compendium of commitments
128. We welcome the voluntary commitments made at Rio+20 and invite the Secretary-General to compile them in a registry/compendium that will serve as an accountability framework.
 Submitted by the co-Chairs on behalf of the Bureau in accordance with the decision in Prepcom 2 to present the zero-draft of the outcome document for consideration by Member States and other stakeholders no later than early January 2012.