Friday, 30 January 2009

CO2 Ratio and Cities climatic change

Cities and CO2 emissions: key facts Cities account for 75% of totalglobal energy demand andproduce 80% of our CO2emissions driving climatechange.• Half the global population 3
lives in cities: three-quartersof the human population to 0become city dwellers by 2050.
5-step approach:• Assessing baseline (existing) CO2 emissions from all energyrelatedsectors in cities.• Establishing ambitious (and realistic) citywide CO2 emissionreduction targets.• Identifying robust actions to achieve those targets.• Developing incentives and programmes for implementing theactions.• Monitoring and verifying the reductions achieved as a result:sharing experiences.
Total CO2 emissions on different sectors, roads transport(19.2%), Domestic (30.4%). Land Use Change (0.2%). Industry and Commercial(50.3%), total amount of CO2 emissions=
6.9t/year. Oxford, UK.(2008). Source: (Roaf, S. and Gupta, R.(July-2008)
Sudan country :Sudan has undertaken, as of 1996, the task of compiling its first inventory of greenhouse gases. These activities, taking place within the Climate Change Enabling Project, will not only create a GHG profile of Sudan, for use in the larger global framework, but will prepare Sudan for compliance with its obligation under the UNFCCC, and assist the nation in formulating climate sensitive development goals and informed mitigation and adaptation policies. To comply with the requirements of the UNFCCC, the national inventory of GHG in Sudan was conducted using the standardized IPCC/OECD methodology. Following this methodology, GHG emissions have been calculated for most of the source/sink categories identified in the different sectors, namely energy, industry, agriculture, waste management, and land-use change and forestry.A team of national experts was formed under the Climate Change Enabling Project in the Higher Council for Environment and Natural Resources, to compile the greenhouse gases inventory for Sudan. The team members were drawn largely from those sectors identified as sources and sinks for GHGs, including the Ministries of Energy, Industry, and Agriculture and Animal Resources, the Forests National Corporation, as well as research and climate change-related bodies such as the Environmental Studies Institute, the Meteorological Authority, NGOs, and the private sector.
CO2 emissions on different sectors: Energy Industries(23%), Industerial (14%),Transportation(45%), Agricultural(14%) and Others(4%).Khartoum, Sudan.(1995). Source: the Higher Council for Environment and Natural Resources, Environmental Studies Institute, the Meteorological Authority, NGOs(1995). "Greenhouse Gas Inventory"
*BY compairson these two information we notice that UK is an industrial company, then the domistic sector coming in the second place, then the transportation sectorIn The Sudan the transportation sector coming in the first , the energy comes in the second , then the industerial sector and Agricultura in the third placelI notice that from CO2 emission in different countries we can see the atitute of peoples and the development of this country what is come first, what is come in the second place in the solutions and this should be considered

Monday, 26 January 2009

The Japanese Architecture

Dear Visitor last month Elfatih Tower Hotel at Khartoum the Capital of Sudan Presented The Japanese Architecture in an exhibition the pictures showes the Japanese Architecture in five different sycles:
1-Life cycles:From Cradle to Grave
2-Culture cycles: Environments and Art
3-Urban Cycles:Center and Periphery
4-Living cycles:Conformity or Diversion

Wednesday, 21 January 2009


Name : Hind Abdel Moneim Khogali Osman
Date of Birth : 10/5/1968
Nationality : Sudanese?British zitizen.
Religion : Muslim
Marital Status : Married
Risedance @Riyadh city

Contact information
hind abdel


M.Sc. In environmental studies; Institute of Environmental studies; University of Khartoum .2005
Title of the Thesis:”Impact of gaseous by products and pollutants waste water, at Khartoum Refinery on the environment”.

B.Sc. Ain Shams University –Faculty of engineering, Architecture department; Cairo. Design Section. With general grade (Good), and the Graduation project (Good in 1994.
Title of the project: Technology Museum.


Total Experience record 18 years

From 2010 to 2012
Lecturer at Dar Al Uloom University
-History of architecture
-Environmental control
-Design foundation one
-Design foundation two
-Design projects
-Building construction
from 2006 :  to 2009
Lecturer at Computer Man College for Computer Studies,. Design and Architecture Engineering Section as a Lecturer Handling:
· Supervise graduation projects.
· Design and Studio for all semesters.
· History and theory of Architecture.
· Building Science Course
· Environmental Studies.
to 2005: From2006
Khartoum Aviation Academy, As Lecturer in the Engineering Section Handling Engineering Drawing Course
handling engineering drawing course

Professional  Engineering work Qualifications
From 2002 to 2005
Akadabi Steel Factory for steel and prefabricated buildings.
As Design Department Manger . Having experience in ;
- Design of steel buildings
- Design of prefabrication buildings
- Follow-up the designs at Design Department.
- Check up the bills of quantities
- Check up of the contractors.
From 2002 to 1994
Dar Consult (Khartoum Development Consulting Authority), at Architecture Design Department .AutoCAD Section. Having experience in:
- Architecture Design jobs.
- Technical Design jobs.
- Presentation drawing using AutoCAD programs.
- Production detailing & drawings
- Perspective mass by AutoCAD program.
- Supervise building construction.

 Member ship
·    Sudanese Architectural Society
 Specialist Architectural Engineer – Sudanese Engineering Council
RIBA, The Roial  British Institute of Architect, Student membership
- Intensive Course in Auto- Cad in the period 19.11.1995 to 31.12.1995
At Elsahwa Computer Centre
Earn 255 hrs
Awarded Excellent

Health, Safety and Environment HSE Course
From 19.03.2005 to 31.03.2005
At Petroleum Training Centre
Earn 60hrs.
Awarded Excellent

AIA , The Amirican Institute of Architect,  Distance learning,Sustainability Courses
Earn 15 hrs
Aearded Certificates fro AIA
-Saudi Green Building Forum, Oct-2010
Saudi Green Building Forum,Oct2011
Saudi Green Building Forum Oct 2012
more than 16 confrences b from 2007 to 2012
Arabic Language(fluent).
.English Language(fluent)

Tuesday, 20 January 2009

The Environmental Impact Of Gaseous By- Products and Pollutants in Waste Water At Khartoum Refinery.


Sudan has become one of the oil producing countries since 2000 . Petroleum as an energy source represents 16 % of the energy balance of the country. The processes of prospecting, transportation, refining and utilization of petroleum may have serious negative impacts on the environment. This study focuses on the determination of the nature and concentration of the main gases ensuing during the process of oil refining, as well as the determination of pollutants in waste water at Khartoum Refinery. Also, investigation into means and ways adopted by the Refinery to reduce the negative impact of those pollutants on the environment are reviewed. The gaseous by- products analyzed include SO2, NOX and CO. The waste water pollutants analyzed include the pH, oil and grease , sulphides, phenols, nitrogen and ammonia , the total suspended solids (TSS) , the biological oxygen demand (BOD),and the chemical oxygen demand (COD). It is found that the analytical results of the gaseous by –products are compatible with the Chinese, Global Bank Guide and The Sudanese Standards. The results of the analyses of the pollutants in the outlet waste water after treatment are compatible with the Chinese and Sudanese Standards as regards oil and grease ;phenols; nitrogen and ammonia; the total suspended solids ; the biological oxygen demand and the sulphide .This demonstrates the effectiveness of the treatment methods adopted by the Refinery in dealing with the above –mentioned gaseous by-products and water pollutants . However, the methods adopted in controlling the pH and the chemical oxygen demand needs revising.
Some recommendations are proposed in order to curb the impact of this industry on the environment.


فى العام 2000م ﺃصبح السودان في عداد الدول المنتجة للبترول , حيث يمثل فيه البترول 16 % من ميزان الطاقة. إن صناعة البترول في كل مراحلها من ,الإستكشاف, الإستخراج ,الترحيل ,التكرير, والتصدير وحتى الاستخدام قد يكون لها آثار ضارة على البيئة وصحة الانسان .
هذه الدراسة ركزت على تحديد طبيعة وتركيز الغازات الناتجة والمنبعثة وكذلك تحديد الملوثات فى فضلات المياه الناتجة من عملية تكرير البترول بمصفاة الخرطوم.هذا بالإضافة الى التعرف علىالطرق المتبعة فى المصفاة لتقليل الآثار السالبة لهذه الملوثات على البيئة .
الغازات الناتجة التى حللت شملت . SO2, NOX, CO أما الملوثات التى حللت فى فضلات المياه بعد معالجتها شملت الرقم الهيدروجينى (pH) , الشحوم والزيوت , الكبريت ، الفينول , النيتروجين والأمونيا , المواد العالقة الصلبة الكلية ( (TSS , الحاجة البايوكيميائية للأكسجين ( BOD), الحاجة الكيميائية للأكسجين (COD).
كانت نتيجة التحاليل بالنسبة للغازات الناتجة أنها متلائمة مع المقاييس الصينية و السودانية و البنك الدولى للغازات الناتجة من عملية تكرير البترول.كذلك نتيجة التحاليل للملوثات الموجودة فى فضلات المياه الخارجة بعد المعالجة فإنها متلائمة مع المقاييس الصينية والسودانية لفضلات المياه الناتجة من عملية تكرير البترول بالنسبة للشحوم والزيوت ، الفينول , النيتروجين والأمونيا , المواد العالقة الصلبة الكلية ( (TSS , الحاجة البايوكيميائية للأكسجين ( BOD) ,والكبريت.وهذا يدل على فعالية المعالجات المتبعة من قبل إدارة المصفاة لتنقية الملوثات سابقة الذكر من الغا زات و فضلات المياه .
أما المعالجات المتبعة للتحكم فى الرقم الهيدروجينى( pH) و الحاجة الكيميائية للأكسجين (COD) فانها تحتاج الى مراجعة نسبة لعدم فعاليتها فى الوصول الى التركيز المناسب.
الدراسة شملت جملة من التوصيات من اجل الحد من الآثار السالبة لهذه الصناعة على البيئة.

Monday, 19 January 2009

Top Ten Green Product

Building Green Announces 2008 Top-10 Green Products

Building Green, LLC, publisher of Environmental Building News (EBN) and the Green Spec Directory, announced its seventh annual Top-10 Green Building Products during the 2008 Greenbuild Expo in Boston. The list recognizes the most exciting products added to Green Spec or covered in EBN in the last year; a detailed announcement and full product listings are available at

Pl.6.1 Integrity Block,

Integrity Block is a compacted-earth block used as a cost-competitive replacement for concrete masonry units. The blocks contain up to 60% pre-consumer recycled content and about half as much Portland cement as standard concrete blocks do. They take 40% less energy to produce. For more information, see

Pl.6.2 Emerald Safe ’N Sound solid-core interior doors,
Emerald Safe ’N Sound solid-core interior doors from Masonite have wheat-straw particleboard cores, skins made from composite wood, and stiles and rails made from solid wood certified according to Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) standards For more information, see or EBN Vol. 17, No. 9.

Pl.6.3: PlybooPure from Smith + Fong is the first bamboo flooring to carry FSC

PlybooPure from Smith + Fong is the first bamboo flooring to carry FSC certification and is made with low-emitting, non-formaldehyde polyisocyanurate binder. For more information, see or EBN Vol. 17, No. 1.

Pl.6.4: Natura Paint
Natura Paint from Benjamin Moore uses not only a base with no volatile organic compounds (VOCs), but also uses zero-VOC colorants. The paint contains a 100% acrylic resin which, according to the company, will meet the Master Painter Institute’s Green Performance standard as well as Green Seal’s 2009 GS-11 standard covering chemical content and paint performance. More information is available at

Pl.6.5: PolyWhey from Vermont Natural Coatings

PolyWhey from Vermont Natural Coatings is a waterborne wood finish that uses recycled whey protein, a by-product of the dairy industry, as a binder. These LEED-qualifying, low-odor coatings contain no toxic heavy metals and have a VOC level less than 180 g/L. For more information, see or EBN Vol. 17, No. 6.

Pl.6.6:. Ecotextiles are made from 100% organic cotton or other sustainably grown fibers.
Ecotextiles are made from 100% organic cotton or other sustainably grown fibers, including hemp, flax (linen), abaca, ramie, silk, and bamboo. Fabrics are third-party certified to meet the Oeko Tex Standard 100, with some fabrics also certified by the Global Organic Textile Standard. For more information, see or EBN Vol. 17, No. 12.

Pl.6.7 : Matrix Total Home System
The Matrix Total Home System from NTI is an integrated appliance that combines a gas-fired condensing boiler and furnace, condensing demand water heater, and heat-recovery ventilator into a single unit, and it is pre-configured for air conditioning. According to the company, the system can reduce gas consumption by 30% compared with a conventional system, providing an annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE) of 94 for forced-air and 92.7 for hydronic heating, and an energy factor of 0.85 for water heating. For more information, see

Pl.6.8: Matrix Total Home System
The SunCache integral-collector-storage (ICS) solar water heater uses a roof-mounted, water-filled, unpressurized, polyethylene panel and copper heat exchanger to preheat water for domestic use. The relatively inexpensive SunCache captures heat in 50 gallons (190 l) of non-circulating water stored in a rooftop panel. When a hot-water tap is turned on, cold water from the supply line flows through the copper heat exchanger embedded in the panel, extracting heat from the stored water. More information is available at

Pl.6.8: Agilewaves Resource Monitor
Agilewaves Resource Monitor provides residential and commercial building owners with real-time data on electricity, gas, and water consumption. This system can be accessed via the Internet, displaying data from various systems in a building. For more information, see or EBN Vol. 17, No. 12.

Pl.6.9 : The Rainwater H2OG is a modular rainwater storage tank
The Rainwater H2OG is a modular rainwater storage tank for use in tight spaces such as under decks, against houses, or even within walls. Two versions are available: a potable water tank made from virgin food-grade polyethylene and a non-food-grade tank made with 15% recycled content. Each module holds 50 gallons (190 l) of water that can be used for gardening, irrigation, toilets, laundry, or (with the food-grade tank and after proper filtration) potable water. For more information, see